GSB-88® : Gilsonite Sealer/Binder Emulsion

gsb88-condition-graphGSB-88® (gilsonite sealer-binder emulsion) is an environmentally friendly restorative sealer for pavements that are in fair to good condition. Economical and versatile, it has preserved state highways, county roads, city streets, parking lots, and airport runways around the world since 1988.

GSB-88®  is ASI's flagship product. This gilsonite-based, environmentally-friendly and versatile emulsion enhances, seals, and extends the life of asphalt at a low cost per square yard. Formulated in 1988, it is applied on pavements ranging from high-speed state highways to parking lots, city streets, county roads, and more than 500 military & civil airport runways - from Alaska to Florida and Maine to California. Gilsonite is a unique, naturally-occurring asphalt ore found in Utah that lasts longer and requires less refining than traditional petroleum oils. 

 GSB-88® is the only product in the asphalt industry to undergo rigorous independent third-party environmental testing. After an intensive 2011 Life Cycle Assessment by the Institute for Environmental Research & Education (IERE), GSB-88® earned an Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) attesting to the significant enviromental benefits of its use in preserving pavement. GSB-88® has also been honored with a GreenCircle®/LEED Certification, recognizing that one application every five years can significantly extend the life of asphalt and help reduce global warming, acidification and eutrophication by nearly 50% when compared to reconstruction. 

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Two primary causes of asphalt deterioration are surface oxidation and moisture damage. GSB-88® is designed to mitigate these impacts by reintroducing essential binders to the pavement matrix, enhancing the structure and adding years of life, while simultaneously sealing the surface to help repel water. The binders also prevent or cure surface raveling, which produces foreign object debris (FOD) that can damage or destroy jet engines. 

The average treatment cycle for GSB-88® is five years. Based on nearly three decades of projects, studies, and a years-long official military assessment by the Department of the Navy, when applied regularly GSB-88® can extend the lifecycle of pavements almost indefinitely while producing a Savings-to-Investment Ratio (SIR) of 5.0, and a Return-on-Investment (ROI) of 400%. As the Navy Department assessment concluded, one dollar spent on application of GSB-88® in a preventive maintenance program can save five dollars of expense to correct a deteriorated pavement. 

gsb88-treated-vs-untrated-graphic

gsb88-gilsoniteTHE KEY IS GILSONITE

Gilsonite is a natural form of asphalt found in the Uintah Basin. Because gilsonite does not undergo the oil refining process, it is naturally better for the environment, extending the life of pavement with its unique chemistry.

 

 

NO RETROFITTING REQUIREDgsb88-no-refitting

GSB-88® is easily applied using standard asphalt distributors and spray equipment. It cures in just a few hours, and is odorless, non-toxic, and non-carcinogenic, so you can preserve your investment and get back to business quickly.

 

GreenCircle-MarkGREEN CIRCLE CERTIFIED

By using GSB-88® your project will show great concern for our environment. Reapplication of GSB-88® approximately every five years can double the life of pavement, in turn reducing the environmental impacts by eliminating the need to resurface. The environmental impacts may be reduced by:

  • Global Warming 49% Potential Reduction
  • Acidification 49% Potential Reduction
  • Eutophication 49% Potential Reduction
  • Ecotoxicity 46% Potential Reduction
  • Smog 49% Potential Reduction

With regular use of GSB-88®, the life of roads, airfields, and parking lots can be doubled. By reducing the need to replace the asphalt as often, billions of dollars and thousands of tons of environmental resources are saved each year. (add link to DOD summary and full DOD report)

Airfield Asphalt Pavement Preservation Presentation


Earthsure green small

Earthsure is an environmental product declaration program, the first in the Americas, and the only one provided by an environmental non-profit. An environmental product declaration is like a nutrition label for the environment. It discloses key environmental impacts of a product based on the science of life cycle assessment.GSB-88® is an emulsified, gilsonite-enhanced, pavement sealer and rejuvenator. GSB-88® is one of the most environmentally sound pavement preservation products on the market. It has a 22 year history of performance that has been well-documented by its continued and ever-expanding use nationwide. It has been thoroughly used and tested by groups such as the FAA, the United States Navy, and the Army Corp. of Engineers. The product has been used extensively in both early stage pavement preservation, as well as reactive late stage applications for badly raveled and deteriorated pavements. It has been successfully used as a construction seal for new pavements, to mend construction related problems, and it is the ideal product to fend off the aging process that starts immediately after construction is completed. GSB-88® is the best of both worlds. It offers both the introduction and reintroduction of light fractions, as well as the superior binding, coating, and protection that only GSB products can offer.

 

GSB-88® Tech Sheet

GSB 88® Tech Sheet

GSB-88®® EMULSIFIED SEALER/BINDER
Technical Instructions & Specifications

Product Description:

GSB-88® Emulsified Sealer/Binder is a chemically engineered asphalt preservationproduct comprised of a cationic emulsion with Gilsonite, rejuvenators and specially selected plasticizers. This chemical colloid stabilized emulsion has been specifically formulated for sealing asphalt parking lots, city streets, roads, highways, airport aprons, taxiways, and runways. GSB-88® provides a durable yet flexible seal coat, while special plasticizers and oils penetrate the service binders. The result is an emulsified sealer/binder that restores vital components to asphalt which are lost during the aging and oxidation process, providing a long wearing anti-oxidative seal. GSB-88® also helps to rebind the surface and thereby mitigate raveling issues. It dries to an absolute black color, which beautifies the pavement surface and provides tangible cosmetic benefit. Furthermore, GSB-88® has achieved Green Circle Certification®, which compares the lifespan of a standard asphalt road without GSB-88® treatments and a road with GSB-88® treatments. (Reference:  Environmental Product Declaration)

 

Availability: GSB-88® is available in either a concentrate or ready to use form. The concentrate form allows large shipments via tank truck, ISO container, and flextank or railroad tank car. The concentrate form must be diluted with hot water prior to application.

Specifications:

GSB-88® is available in either a concentrate or ready to use form. The concentrate form allows large shipments via tank truck or railroad tank car. The concentrate form must be diluted with water prior to application.

Specifications for GSB-88® Concentrate are as follows:

Saybolt Viscosity at 77°F (25°C) ASTM D-244. . . . . . . 20 to 100 seconds

Residue by Distillation, or Evaporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57% min.

Sieve test ASTM D-244 (one tenths of one %) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.1%

5 day Settlement test ASTM D-244. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.0% max.

Particle charge (1) ASTM D-244 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Positive

Specifications for GSB-88® Ready-to-Apply:

ONE PART EMULSION TO ONE PART WATER

Saybolt Viscosity at 77°F (25°C) ASTM D-244 . . . . . . . . . . . 10 to 50 sec.

Residue by Distillation, or Evaporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28.5  minimum

Pumping Stability test (2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pass

TWO PARTS EMULSION TO ONE PART WATER

Saybolt Viscosity at 77°F (25°C) ASTM D-244 . . . . . . . . . . . 10 to 50 sec.

Residue by Distillation, or Evaporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37.5  minimum

Pumping Stability test (2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pass

Tests on Residue from Distillation, or Evaporation:

Viscosity astm 275°F (135°C) ASTM D-4402 . . . . . . . . . . . 1750 cts max.

Solubility in 1,1,1 trichloroethylene ASTM D-2042 . . . . . . . . 97.5% min.

Penetration ASTM D-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 dmm max.

Asphaltenes ASTM D-2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15% min.

Saturates ASTM D-2007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15% max.

Polar Compounds ASTM D-2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25% min.

Aromatics ASTM D-2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15% min.

 Gilsonite Content.......................................................................20% min

  • (1) pH may be used in lieu of the particle charge test which is sometimes inconclusive in slow setting, bituminous emulsions.
  • (2) Pumping stability is tested by pumping 1 pint, (475 ml) of GSB-88® diluted 1 part concentrate to 1 part water, at 77°F (25°C), through a 1/4inch gear pump operating 1750 rpm for 10 minutes with no significant separation or coagulation.
 

Storage and Handling Instructions

GSB-88® 

GSB-88® is to be stored in vertical storage tanks and shall be handled like any standard asphalt emulsion. The storage tank should be equipped with a slow revolution mechanical agitator. Hot water heating coils, electrical coils, or electrical heaters are required in colder climates to prevent the emulsion from freezing. Positive displacement gear pumps should be used to transfer and apply GSB-88® materials. Storage and handling temperature are 50°F (10°C) to 160°F (71oC). GSB-88® should be protected from freezing, or whenever outside temperature drops below 40°F (4°C) for prolonged time periods.

Application Instructions

Equipment: GSB-88® is to be applied with standard bituminous distributors. The equipment must be in good working order, and contain no contaminants or dilutents in the tank. Spreader bar tips must be clean, free of burrs, and adjusted for regulated flow. Any type of tip or pressure source is suitable that will maintain predetermined flow rates and constant pressure during the application process. The equipment should be tested under pressure for leaks and to insure it is in working order before use. No special mixing equipment is necessary since GSB-88® concentrate may be easily diluted with water in the spreader tank.

Dilution: GSB-88® concentrate must be diluted with water. Water for mixing shall be potable, with a maximum hardness of 90ppm calcium and 15ppm magnesium, and deleterious iron, sulfates, and phosphates maximum 7ppm, and less than 1ppm of organic byproducts.  Ideally water shall be softened.  Water shall be minimum 140F prior to adding to emulsion and shall be within 10F of emulsion temperature.  Emulsion shall be 140F to 180F prior to adding water. Always add the water to the concentrate emulsion, never add concentrate emulsion to the water. Two dilution rates are recommended as follows

 

1 part GSB-88® to 1 part water for most applications is recommended.

2 parts GSB-88® to 1 part water for use on hills where run off may be of concern, or on very rough surface texture pavements.

 

Polymer Addition: The polymer shall be a vinyl acrylic polymer approved for use by Asphalt Systems Inc...  Consult Asphalt System's Technical Representative for specific details.

Rate of spread is normally determined by the texture, porosity, and age of the asphalt pavement to be sealed. Application rate can vary from 0.08 to 0.15 gallons per square yard (0.36 to 0.68 Liters to Square Meter). For 2:1 dilution, 0.08 to 0.12 gallons per square yard (0.36 to 0.54 Liters to square meter) is recommended. For 1: 1 dilution, 0.10 to 0.15 gallons per square yard (0.46 to 0.68 Liter to square meter) is recommended. Exceeding recommended application rates is not recommended without consulting Asphalt System's Technical Representative.

Cure Time:  Expected cure times with proper applications should generally range from 2-4 hours depending upon local climatic conditions (humidity, surface temperature, daytime/ nighttime application, spread rates and dilution, etc). Sheltered or shady areas may require longer cure times.

 
Application Precautions:

Application Precautions: GSB-88® is not to be applied to wet or damp pavement surfaces. Do not apply during rainy or damp weather, or when rain is anticipated within 8 hours after application is completed. Pavement surface temperatures should be 50°F (10°C) and rising before application of GSB-88® is applied. At least three hours of daylight should remain after completion of the application. The Emulsion temperature for application should be 130oF, but not exceed 160oF.  GSB-88® should not be applied on extremely windy days.

Caution should be taken when applying GSB-88® over existing coal tar treatments, as curing time and traffic readiness could be compromised, consult with Asphalt System's Technical Representative

Preparation of Pavement Surfaces: Repair and patch all major pavement defects. All cracks, other than hairline cracks, should be filled with suitable bituminous crack filler. Scrape all oil spots to remove excess oil and dirt. Just before applying GSB-88® clean the asphalt surface of all loose dust, dirt, and other debris.

Sanding: If needed, sanding should be done at the same time GSB-88® is applied to maintain adequate surface friction. A hard, highly fractured sand should be used. Because there are regional differences in sand characteristics, a knowledgeable local pavement maintenance engineer should be consulted to insure that the appropriate amount and type of sand is chosen to regain any lost skid resistance. Sanding is best done by mounting a sand slinger on the applicator and applying approximately 0.10 to 0.5 pounds of sand per square yard to achieve needed friction results. Consult Asphalt System's Technical Representative for specific details.

 

Striping: Striping should be done in two phases, the first phase is to be a 30% stripe after the GSB-88® has had sufficient time to cure. Final Striping should be done 30 days after the final application. 

Maintenance: Under normal traffic conditions a single application of GSB-88® when properly applied, should not require reapplication for 3 to 5 years. Thereafter, additional applications of GSB-88 can be reapplied to extend the life of the pavement indefinitely.

Health and Safety: Consult the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) for GSB-88® fire and explosion data, health hazard data, first aid procedures, reactivity data, spill or leak procedures, waste disposal and use of personal protective equipment. Additional copies of the Safety Data Sheet (SDS) can be obtained by calling ASI, 801-972-2757 or visit: www.asphaltsystemsinc.com

Warranty and Disclaimer: Refer to www.asphaltsystemsinc.com for terms and conditions.

 

Cost and Additional Information: For further information on availability and cost of GSB-88® contact Asphalt Systems, Inc., P.O. Box 25511, Salt Lake City, UT 84125-0511 or call at 1-801-972-2757. Website: www.asphaltsystemsinc.com

For Chemical Emergency:

Spill, Leak, Fire, Exposure, or Accident

Call CHEMTREC Day or Night

Within USA and Canada: 1-800-424-9300 CCN1842 or

+1 703-527-3887 (collect calls accepted)

GSB-88® SDS

GSB 88® SDS

Section  1. PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION / COMPANY INFORMATION

Trade Name:                        GSB-88®

Synonyms: Asphalt Emulsion, GSB-88, Asphalt Sealer, Fog Seal, Cationic Bitumic Emulsion

Uses and uses advised against:  USE-Asphalt Sealer, fog seal.

Manufactured b: Asphalt Systems Inc... 2775 w 1500 s, Salt lake City, UT  84104  phone (801)972-2757

Chemical Emergency: Spill, Leak, Fire, Exposure, or Acccident Call Chemtrec Day or night, Within USA and Canada 800-824-9300 CCN1842 or 703-537-3887 (collect calls accepted)

Section 2: Hazard Identification

 

GHS Classification (s)        Carcinogenicity: Category 2

                                                Serious Eye Damage / Eye irritation: Category 2b

                                                Aquatic Toxicity (chronic): Category 3

                                                Skin Corrosion / Irritation: Category3

Label Elements:

                Signal Word:        Warning

                Pictogram: 

Hazard Statement (s)

                                                Causes Mild Skin Irritation

                                                Causes Eye irritation

                                                Suspected of Causing Cancer

                                                Harmful to Aquatic Life with long lasting effects.

Prevention Statement (s)

                                                Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.

                                                Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing

                                                Wash Thoroughly after handling.

                                                Avoid release to the environment

                                                Use personal protective equipment as required.

Response Statement (s)        IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.

                                                IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice / attention.

                                                IF eye irritation persists: Get medical advice / attention.

Storage Statement (s)

                                                Store in a well-ventilated place.

                                                Store locked up.

Disposal Statement (s)          Dispose of contents / container in accordance with relevant regulations

Other Hazards                       Avoid direct contact with heated material above 90oC (190 F) Once cured, the inert solid material is considered non-hazardous.

Please see package labelling or manufacturer’s literature for more detail on usage, handling, storage and disposal under different applications.

Hazardous Materials Identification System (HMIS)

Health                   Flammability                     Reactivity                            Basis

1                                              0                                   0                                         0

 

Section  3      Composition

Component Name (s)                                    CAS Registry No.                                    Concentration (%)                        Classification: GHS                  Risk

Bitumen                                                                8052-42-4  EC: 232-490-9                             35 - 40                                          Not Available                         Not Available

Gilsonite                                                              12002-43-6   EC:601-660-8                            12 - 20                                          Not Available                         Not Available

Aromatic Oil                                                       contact Manufacture                                  Proprietary                                   Carc. 2 H351                           Carc.; R40

Water                                                                   7732-185 EC: 231-791-2                                  38-40                                          Not Available                         Not Available

Emulsifier                                                          Contact Manufacture                                      proprietary                                   Not Available                        Not Available

                Caution: there maybe the possibility of volatile vapors developing under extreme heat conditions

 

Section  4.      FIRST AID MEASURES

Eye Contact:          If contact with hot material occurs, flush gently with cold running water. Adhered material should only be removed under the medical direction. Seek immediate medical advice.

Skin Contact:        If contact with hot material occurs, drench area immediately with cold water, do not attempt to remove material adhered to skin. Seek immediate medical attention.

Inhalation:            If inhaled, remove from contaminated area. To protect rescuer, use a Type A (organic vapor) respirator or an air-line respirator (in poorly ventilated areas). Apply artificial respiration if not breathing.

Ingestion:              For advice, contact a Poison Information center or a doctor (at once). If swallowed,do not induce vomiting.  Do not give anything to drink unless directed by a physician. Never give anything by mouth to a person who is not fully conscious. If significant amounts are swallowed or irritation or discomfort occurs, seek medical attention immediately.

 

First aid Facilities:             Eye Wash facilities and safety shower are recommended.

Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed

Avoid contact with hot material, as burns may result. Bitumen’s, occupational exposure to straight run bitumen and their emissions curing road paving, are classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 2B) However, since this product is not intended to be heated above 90oC the carcinogenic potential is significantly reduced.

Immediate medical attention and special treatment needed

Burns caused by bitumen require special medical treatment. Consultation with a burns specialist experienced in bitumen burns is advisable in the first instance.

Bitumen burns: If hot bitumen contacts the skin, flush immediately with water and make no attempt to remove it. Use wet, cold towels, if face, neck, shoulder, or back etc. are burnt. Cool burn areas for 30 minutes and seek immediate medical attention. Where bitumen completely circles a limb, it may have a tourniquet effect and should be split longitudinally as it cools.  If eye burns result flush with water for 15 minutes, pad and seek immediate medical attention.

 

Section  5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

 

NFPA Flammability classification:                       NFPA Class IIIB combustible material

Flash Point                                                             200oC (400oF) Minimum

Lower Flammable Limit                                          NA

Upper Flammable Limit                                          NA

Auto-ignition Temperature                                     NA

 

Extinguishing Media: In case of fire, use water fog, dry chemical or carbon dioxide extinguisher or spray. DO NOT USE water jet.

Special Hazards arising from the substance or mixture; Combustible. May evolve toxic gases (carbon/ sulphur/ nitrogen oxides, hydrogen sulphide, hydrocarbons) when heated to decomposition.

Advice for Firefighters; Evacuate area and contact emergency services. Toxic gases may be evolved in a fire situation. Remain upwind and notify those downwind of hazard. Wear full protective equipment including self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) when combating fire. Use water fog to cool intact container and nearby storage areas.


Hazchem code;

None Allocated

 

Section  6.      ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES

Personal precautions, protective equipment and emergency procedures; Wear Personal Protective equipment (PPE) as detailed in section 8 of the SDS Clear area of all unprotected personnel. Ventilate area where possible. Allow material to cool. Contact emergency services where appropriate

Environmental Precautions; Contain material and prevent product from entering drains and waterways. Collect and seal in properly labelled containers for disposal. If contamination of sewers or waterways has occurred, contact local emergency services.

Methods of Cleaning up; contain spillage, then cover / absorb spill with non-combustible absorbent material (vermiculite, sand or similar) collect and place in suitable containers for disposal. Eliminate all ignition sources.

Reference to other sections; See Section 8 and 13 for exposure controls and disposal.

 

Section 7. HANDLING AND STORAGE

 

Precautions for safe handling; before use carefully read the product label. Use of safe work practices are recommended to avoid eye or skin contact and inhalation. Observe good personal hygiene, including washing hands before eating. Prohibit eating, drinking and smoking in contaminated areas.

Conditions for safe storage, including any incompatibilities; Store in well-ventilated area removed from ignition sources, oxidizing agents and foodstuffs. Keep storage vessels closed when not in use. Take precautionary measures against static electricity discharges. 

Specific end use (s); not applicable.

 

Section 8. EXPOSURE CONTROLS / PERSON PROTECTION

  Control Parameters

                Exposure standards

Ingredient

Reference

TWA

STEL

   

ppm

mg/m3

ppm

mg/m3

Bitumen Fume

SWA (AUS)

 --

5

 --

 --

Biological Limes

No biological limits values have been entered for this product

 

Exposure controls

Engineering controls; Avoid inhalation by working upwind where possible. Use in well ventilated areas.   Maintain vapor /fume levels below the recommended exposure standards. Maintain fume levels below the recommended exposure standard.  

 

PPE

Personal protective equipment (PPE) should meet national recommended standards. Check with PPE suppliers.

 

Eye / Face           Wear a face-shield or splash proof goggles when handling hot material. Wear safety glasses when handling cold material.

Hands                   Wear heat resistant leather or insulated gloves when handling hot material. Wear chemical resistant gloves (i.e. Nitrile) when handling cold material.

 

Body                      Avoid contact with skin and clothing. Wear impervious coveralls and heat resistant boots when handling hot material. When the risk of skin exposure is high, an impervious chemical suit may be required.

 

Respiratory        Where an inhalation risk exists in enclosed or partly enclosed environments (i.e. underground parking, large tanks, tunnels etc.) wear a type-A class P1  (organic gases /vapors  and particulate) respirator, dependent on a site specific risk assessment.

 

                                                                                       

Section 9.  PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

 

Information on basic physical and chemical properties

Appearance:                                      Brown liquid (in Use):  Black semi-solid thermoplastic material (when cured)

Odor:                                                     Bitumen like odor

Flammability                                     Class C2 Combustible

Flash Point                                          >200oC (400 F)

Boiling Point:                                     100o C (212 F)

Melting point:                                       NA

Evaporation Rate                                NA

PH:                                                         2-7                         

Vapor Density (air = 1):                    NA

Specific Gravity:                                1.014

Solubility:                                             Insoluble

Vapor Pressure:                                  NA

Upper explosion limit:                       NA

Lower explosion limit:                      NA

Partition coefficient:                          NA

Auto ignition temperature:              NA

Decomposition temperature:          NA

Viscosity:                                             NA         

Explosive properties:                       NA

Oxidizing properties:                       NA

Odor threshold :                                 NA

 

Other Information

Max Temp in use                              ambient to 90oC  (195 F)

 

Section 10.     STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Reactivity:  Carefully review all information provided in section 10.

 

Chemical Stability: Stable under recommended conditions of storage.

Possibility of hazardous reactions: Polymerization is not expected to occur.

Conditions to avoid:  Keep away from extreme heat, strong acids, and strong oxidizing conditions.

Incompatible materials: incompatible with oxidizing agents (eg. Hypochlorite)

 

Hazardous Decomposition Products: May evolve toxic gases (carbon / sulphur/ nitrogen sulphide, hydrocarbons) when heated to decomposition.

 

Section 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Toxicity Data:    Asphalt

   

Acute Toxicity      No known data is available for this product. Based on available data, the classification criteria are not met. Inhalation may cause headache, nausea and respiratory tract irritation. Once cured, the inert solid material is considered non-hazardous.

 

Skin                        Contact with hot material can result in skin burns. Exposure to asphalt fumes (in the unlikely event of heating above 150oC (300 F) may cause dermatitis and photosensitizations. Once cured, the inert semi solid material is considered non-hazardous.

Eye                          Contact with hot material can result in eye burns. . Exposure to asphalt fumes may cause irritation, redness, or pain. Once cured, the inert semi solid material is considered non-hazardous.

Sensitization          This product is not known to be a skin or respiratory sensitizer.

Mutagenicity           Insufficient data available to classify as a mutagen.

Carcinogenicity   Bitumen’s, occupational exposure to straight-run bitumen’s and their emissions during road paving, are classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 2B) it is strongly suggested that temperature plays an important role in determining the degree of exposure and also the carcinogenic potential of bitumen emissions. Therefore, since this product is not intended to be heated above 90oC (195 F) the carcinogenic potential is significantly reduced.

Reproductive         Insufficient data available to classify as a reproductive toxin.

STOT- Single           Not classified as causing organ effects from single exposure. However, inhalation of bitumen Exposure             fumes may cause headache, nausea and respiratory tract irritation. This material may

                                  Release trace quantities of hydrogen sulphide within storage facilities.

STOT –repeated     Not classified as causing organ effects from repeated exposure.

Exposure

Aspiration              This product is not expected to present an aspiration hazard.

                       

Section 12.  ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Toxicity

 When set, the bulk of the bitumen dispersed in asphalt is fairly inert, and should not present an environmental hazard under normal conditions.

Persistence and degradability

Can be expected to biodegrade slowly

Bioaccumalative potential

This product is not expected to bioaccumulate through food chains in the environment.

Mobility in soil

Emulsifies in water. Spillages are unlikely to penetrate soil.

Other Adverse effects

Avoid uncured emulsion run off into storm water drainage system.

 

Section 13.  DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS

 Waste treatment methods

Waste disposal    For small amounts dispose of to an approved landfill site. Contact the manufacturer for additional information if larger amounts are involved. Prevent contamination of drains and waterways as aquatic life may be threatened and environmental damage may result.

 

Legislation              Dispose of in accordance with relevant local legislation.

Section 14. TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION

NOT CLASSIFIED AS A DANGEROUS GOOD BY THE CRITERIA OF THE ADG CODE, IMDG OR IATA

 

Land Transport (ADG)

Sea Transport (IMDG / IMO)

Air Transport (IATA / ICAO)

UN Number

None Allocated

None Allocated

None Allocated

Proper Shipping Name

None Allocated

None Allocated

None Allocated

Transport Hazard Class

None Allocated

None Allocated

None Allocated

Packing Group

None Allocated

None Allocated

None Allocated

 

Environmental Hazards          No Information provided

Special Precautions for User

Hazchem Code                             None Allocated

 

Section 15. REGULATORY INFORMATION

Safety, health and environmental regulations/legislation specific for the substance or mixture

 

Poison schedule  A poison schedule number has not been allocated to this product using the criteria in the Standard for the uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP)

Classification       Safe work Australia criteria is based on the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of Classification and Labelling chemicals.

                                The classification and phrases listed below are based on the approved criteria for classifying hazardous substances (NOHSC: 1008 (2004))

Hazard Codes         Carc.               Carcinogen

                                  N                     Dangerous for the Environment

Risk Phrases          R40                 Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect.

                                  R52/53          Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment

Safety Phrases        S36/37           Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves.

Inventory listing (s)                     AUSTRALIA: AICS (Australia inventory of chemical substances)

                                                          All components are listed on AICS, or are exempt.

 

Section 16. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

Additional Information               Personal protective equipment guidelines:

The recommendation for protective equipment contain within this report is provided as a guide only. Factors such as method of application, working environment, quantity used, product concentration and the availability of engineering controls should be considered before final selection of personal protective equipment is mad.

 

                                  Health effects from exposure:  it should be noted that the effects from exposure to this product will depend on several factors including: frequency and duration of use; quantity used; effectiveness of control measures; protective equipment used and method of application. Given that it is impractical to prepare a report which would encompass all possible scenarios, it is anticipated that users will assess the risk and apply control methods where appropriate.

 

 

 

 

Scale for NFPA and HMIS Ratings:

0-least, 1-Slight, 2-Moderate, 3-High, 4-Extreme, PPE- Personal Protective Equipment Index Recommendation, *-Chronic Effect Indicator. These values are obtained using the guidelines or published evaluations prepared by the National Fire Protections Association (NFPA) or the National Paint and Coatings Association (for HMIS ratings).

ABBREVIATIONS:    TLV – Threshold Limit Value

                                  TWA – Time Weighted Average

                                  STEL – Short-term Exposure Limit

                                  REL/PEL – Recommended/ Permissible Exposure Limit

                                  NA – Not Applicable                                                          

                                  CAS – Chemical Abstract Service Number

                                  ACGIH – American conference of governmental industrial hygienists

                                  CNS – Central Nervous System

                                  EC No.  – EC No - European Community Number

                                  GHS – Globally Harmonized System

                                  LC50 – Lethal Concentration, 50% / Median Lethal Concentration

                                  LD50 – Lethal Dose, 50% / Median Lethal Dose

                                  Mg/m3Milligrams per Cubic Meter

                                  OEL – Occupational Exposure Limit

                                  PEL - Permissible exposure limit

  PH – relates to hydrogen ion concentration using a scale of 0 (high Acidic) to 14 Highly Alkaline).

 Ppm – parts per million

REACH – Regulation of Registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals

STOT-RE – Specific target organ toxicity (repeated Exposure)

STOT-SE – Specific Target organ toxicity (single Exposure)

SUSMP – Standard for the uniform scheduling of medicines and poisons

SWA – Safe Work Australia

The information in this SDS was obtained from sources which we believe are reliable. However, the information is provided without any warranty, expressed or implied regarding its correctness. Some information presented and conclusions drawn herein are from sources other than direct test data on the substance itself. This SDS was prepared and is to be used only for the products listed. If the product is used as a component in another product, this SDS information may not be applicable. Users should make their own investigations to determine the suitability of the information or products for their particular purpose.

The conditions or methods of handling, storage, use and disposal or the product are beyond our control and may be beyond our knowledge. For this and other reasons, we do not assume responsibility and expressly disclaim liability for loss, damage, or expense arising out of or in any way connected with handling, storage, use, or disposal of the product.

Prepared by:     Asphalt Systems Inc.

                        P.O. Box 25511

                        Salt Lake City, UT  84125

                        801-972-2757

                        Fax 801-972-6433

                        www.asphaltsystemsinc.com

GSB-88® Runway Preservation System History & Performance Executive Summary

ASI GSB-88®/Runway Preservation System (RPS)

 History and Performance

Executive Summary

As long as pavements are subjected to traffic loads and environmental actions, they will experience deterioration and eventual failure. A preventive maintenance program puts pavement engineers and managers in full control of the system’s long-term behavior: to prevent failures from occurring. Through preventive maintenance, the owner can decide on the level of service provided by the facility and the length of time prior to a major rehabilitation activity. Figure 1 compares the two concepts: preventive maintenance and major rehabilitation in terms of the present serviceability index (PSI). Preventive maintenance provides excellent conditions over extended time period while a major rehabilitation offers luxurious conditions for a short time period. Typical pavement users have short memory span: no one will remember the luxurious conditions that prevailed during the first few years while they are stuck using a poor (rough) facility in years 7-10. On the other hand the boundary between luxurious and excellent conditions (year 10) is very narrow and most users would not be able to differentiate between the two levels. The excellent level of service coupled with the significant savings offered by a preventive maintenance program makes it a wise choice for most agencies.

asiexecutivesummary1

 

ASI-RPS Technical Information

The GSB-88®/RPS is a chemically engineered asphalt pavement sealer comprised of a cationic emulsion of Gilsonite ore, and specially selected plasticizers. GSB-88®/RPS provides a durable, yet flexible topcoat, while special plasticizers and oils penetrate and rejuvenate asphalt pavements. The gilsonite seal provides a long wearing anti- oxidative seal for the surface of the asphalt pavement. The GSB-88®/RPS is available in either a concentrate or ready to use form. It is stored and handled like any standard asphalt emulsion and can be applied with standard bituminous distributors. The rate of spread is normally determined by the texture, porosity, and age of the asphalt pavement to be sealed. Application rate can vary from 0.08 to 0.15 gallons per square yard. Under normal conditions, cure time for the GSB-88®/RPS is 2 to 8 hours.

Field Experiments

Documented long-term field performance represents the backbone of pavement engineering and management. The performance of a pavement is affected by numerous factors: traffic, materials, construction, and environment. It takes a well-documented field experiment to realistically assess the performance of a specific pavement maintenance technology under the combined actions of the various factors and to validate laboratory experiments. During the 1990s, the GSB-88®/RPS sealer was evaluated through two independent field trials: Portland International Airport (PDX) and Mulino Regional Airport. In both cases, the sealer was applied as a part of a preventive maintenance program and its long-term performance was monitored.

Figure 2 shows the performance of the GSB-88®/RPS sealer on PDX taxiway C. The visual Condition Index (VCI) is based on the Micropaver Pavement Condition Index (PCI) with minor modifications to magnify the impact of raveling and weathering which are the most common failure modes of taxiways and runways. VCI ranges between 1 and 100 with 56-70 representing good pavement conditions. The performance data of PDX Taxiway C shows that the GSB-88®/RPS was able to maintain the taxiway pavement at an excellent level for a period of 8 years.

Figure 3 shows the performance of the GSB-88®/RPS sealer on the runway of Mulino Regional Airport in Western Oregon. The runway was constructed in 1987 and was sealed two years later (1989) due to its dry appearance and the evidence of some raveling. The performance data of the Mulino runway showed that the GSB-88®/RPS sealer kept the runway at excellent conditions for 10 years by interrupting its aging process, and therefore, stopping the progress of raveling and weathering.

The GSB-88®/RPS sealer has a proven history of success through wide applications and great tolerance for extreme environmental conditions. Throughout the past decade, the GSB-88®/RPS sealer has been successfully applied on commercial and general aviation runways (grooved and un-grooved), taxiways, and ramps. The sealer’s environmental performance has been tested under all four regions of the U.S.: wet-freeze, dry-freeze, wet-no freeze, and dry-no freeze (applications list is available upon request).

The GSB-88®/RPS sealer’s versatility and excellent performance have landed it over 11 million square yards on over100 airports with the great majority of the cases being repeated applications. Implementing a sound preventive maintenance program with the field-proven GSB-88®/RPS sealer results in long lasting pave•ments with significant savings. With such a system, airport managers have been able to do what pilots have been doing for decades: “put the system on auto-pilot.”

asiexecutivesummary2and3

 

Laboratory Experiments

During 2000-2002, the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) of the U.S. Corps of Engineers conducted a laboratory experiment to assess the ability of the GSB-88®/RPS sealer in protecting the asphalt binder from aging and to hold the sand particles under the abrasive action of traffic loads. The experiment compared the performance of the GSB-88®/RPS sealer to a standard asphalt emulsion (CSS-1) and a refined coal tar sealer. The GSB-88®/RPS sealer was applied at two rates: light and heavy. A total of five conditions were evaluated and compared: (1) uncoated, (2) CSS-1 emulsion, (3) coal tar, (4) light GSB-88®/RPS, and (5) heavy GSB-88®/RPS.

The five coating conditions were applied on asphalt concrete cylindrical samples (4.0” diameter by 2.5” height) compacted using the Marshall hammer. After coating, the asphalt concrete samples were aged in the oven for 1 and 60 hours at 60oC (140oF). The Marshall stability was used to assess the degree of aging of the asphalt concrete mix. The higher the Marshall stability the more aging the asphalt concrete mix would have experienced. Figures 4 and 5 compare the Marshall stabilities of the samples under the 1 and 60 hours aging, respectively. Three replicate samples were tested for each condition which allows a statistical analysis of the data. The letters on the bars of Figures 4 and 5 indicate the statistical grouping of the results. Having the same letter on any two or three bars indicates that these conditions have similar Marshall stabilities (e.g. experienced similar aging). For example, the heavy RPS in Figures 4 and 5 are represented by the letter “A” while all other conditions have different letters. This indicates that the heavy RPS sealer was the most effective condition in reducing the aging of the asphalt concrete mix under 1 and 60 hours of oven curing. The C/D label on the CSS-1 emulsion bar in Figure 5 indicates that the ability of the CSS-1 emulsion to protect the asphalt mixture from aging was not significantly better than the uncoated condition.

asiexecutivesummary4and5

 

The objective of the sand retention experiment was to assess the ability of the various sealers to hold the sand particles in place under the abrasive action of traffic loads which is directly related to the skid resistance characteristics of the sealed pavement surface. This experiment compared the retention capabilities of the GSB-88®/RPS and CSS-1 emulsion sealers under 24 hr at 60oC, 144 hours at 60oC, and 120 hours at 120oC oven curing conditions. The scrub tester specified in ASTM D2486, modified to use wire brush and surcharge weight, was used to measure the ability of the sealer to hold the sand particles in place. The percentage weight loss defined as the difference in sample weight before and after abrasion (1,000 or 3,000 cycles) was used as a measure of the sealer’s ability to hold the sand particles in place. A higher percentage of weight loss represents a lower ability of the sealer to retain the sand. Figures 6 and 7 compare the ability of the GSB-88®/RPS and CSS-1 emulsion to retain the sand. Again the letters on the bar indicate the statistical grouping of the results. The data show that the GSB-88®/RPS ability to retain the sand under the abrasive action of traffic loads is superior than the ability of the CSS-1 emulsion.

Both the aging and sand retention experiments showed the superior qualities of the GSB-88®/RPS sealer. Protecting the asphalt mixture from aging would result in great long term benefits which include improved resistance to fatigue cracking, low temperature cracking, block cracking, and raveling of the asphalt pavement. Keeping the asphalt binder flexible as the pavement goes through its service life would improve its ability to absorb the movements caused by traffic loads and temperature variations. Also a flexible binder would adhere better to the aggregate surface making it more resistant to moisture damage which is the main cause of raveling. Having the ability to retain the sand particles would offer improved skid resistance.

asiexecutivesummary6and7

 

The results of the laboratory experiment validated the field observations on the performance of the GSB-88®/RPS sealer. The field and laboratory experiments showed that by applying the GSB-88®/RPS sealer multiple benefits are realized: the pavement surface is kept free of cracking which slows down the aging process of the binder and eliminates the penetration of moisture into the asphalt mixture. The GSB-88®/RPS has a validated proven record of protecting airport pavements from their most notorious enemies: aging and moisture damage.

This summary was prepared by Dr. Peter E. Sebaaly, Director of the Western Regional Superpave Center at the University of Nevada, Reno based on his reviews of the field performance data and the laboratory experiment conducted at WES.

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) EPA Report

EPA Report

Using LCA for Procurement Decisions:

A Case Study Performed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Rita Schenck, EcoSense, Inc.

 

Abstract

The U.S. EPA has developed guidance for the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for environmentally preferable purchasing. To support the guidance development, pilot studies were performed, one of which is described here. The study was performed in only four months, using simplified impact assessment methodologies. It showed that one product was environmentally preferable. This pilot demonstrated that LCA's are feasible for the purpose of purchasing decisions.

Introduction

One of the important applications of Life Cycle Assessment is the procurement of environmentally preferable products. In theory, a full life cycle assessment will permit the purchaser to identify which products are preferable, and use that information to improve his or her own environmental performance. In practice, however, life cycle assessments can be very time consuming and costly, and the lack of a consistent format for performing them creates barriers to direct comparisons of products.

The U.S. Federal Government is under executive order to procure environmentally preferable products (Executive orders 12873 and 13101), and the U.S. EPA has an office (the office of the environmental executive) devoted to providing guidance on how to determine environmental preferability. EPA guidance does not require the use of LCA, but it does suggest that the assessment of multiple attributes and a life cycle approach would strengthen the quality of the decisions being made (64 FR 45809; http://www.epa.gov/opptintr/epp).

In support of the Environmentally Preferable Purchasing initiative, the Systems Analysis Branch of the EPA performed a study aimed at developing guidance for performing LCA's for purchasing. The requirements for the study were that any guidance would be:

 

  • Easy to use
  • Yield results in a timely manner
  • Meet the needs of procurement officials and vendors
  • Conform, as much as possible, to the requirements of DIS 14042 for comparative assertions

 

The outcome of the project was an initial formulation for a Framework for Responsible Decision-making (FRED), which would include both financial and LCA-based environmental assessments. As a first step, only the environmental assessment portion of FRED was elaborated in this document. The guidance limits the assumptions and number and types of analyses in order to simplify the LCA process.

The ISO DIS 14042 requires that the list of impact categories and category indicators be comprehensive. Based on expert opinion among the project group, the following impact categories were chosen:

 

  • Global warming
  • Stratospheric ozone depletion
  • Acidification
  • Eutrophication
  • Photochemical smog
  • Human Health (divided into carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic)
  • Ecological Health
  • Resource Depletion (divided into several sub-categories)

 

Several other types of impact categories were evaluated for consideration, for example, habitat loss or groundwater nitrification. However, it was not possible to identify generally accepted models for calculating indicators for these impact categories, and they were therefore excluded from the study. ISO 14042 requires that all impact categories be supported by natural science based models, thus supporting this decision. One of the weaknesses of the LCIA (Life Cycle Impact Assessment) methodology is that known impacts for which models have not been derived are automatically excluded from consideration.

Several different indicators and models were evaluated for these impact categories, and three pilot projects undertaken to test the feasibility of doing LCA's for the purpose of environmentally preferable purchasing. Two of these projects, (comparing insulation for housing, and comparing three different types of motor oil) were based on data previously gathered by NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) and available in a database representing U.S. industry averages. The third pilot was based on a comparison of two types of road treatment designed to prolong the life of asphalt roads. This last pilot was performed using data collected for this study from both industry sources and from a particular small vendor, Asphalt Systems Incorporated (ASI, Salt Lake City, UT). Gathering data from a small vendor over a short time frame was thought to be a good test of whether it would be possible to practically apply LCA methodology to purchasing decisions without unduly burdening small businesses. The road treatment pilot project is the subject of this paper.

The two road maintenance products evaluated represented two methods of maintaining roads: applying a thin layer (1.5 inches thick) of asphalt cement and applying a water based asphalt emulsion (GSB 88) containing a natural mineral product, gilsonite. Both of these products are applied to asphalt roads before significant deterioration has occurred (three to five years into the life of the road), and neither adds structural strength to the road. Each extends the life of the road considerably. The table below compares the characteristics of the two products.

 

Table 1 Description of the Products

  Asphalt Cement GSB-88®
Application Spray of tack coat, followed by application, and steam rolling One step spray application, and sand application
Composition Asphalt mixed with aggregate Asphalt, gilsonite, detergents and emulsifiers plus water diluent
Temperature of application 165 F or above Ambient
Delay before traffic 1-2 hours 1 hour
Frequency of application 7-9 years 3-5 years

 

There are several other specialized methods for maintaining asphalt cement roadways, but these tend to be based on trade secret chemical compositions, and were not included in this study.

 

Methodology

System Function and Functional Unit and Audience

The function provided by the alternative products is the maintenance of good quality roads (five on a scale of ten, where 10 is the as built condition). The functional unit is twenty years of one lane mile. The inventory includes two application of the thin layer of asphalt cement, and five applications of the GSB 88®.

The primary audience for this assessment was federal procurement officers. Secondary audiences included vendors, other officials and practitioners.

System Boundaries

The system studied included all unit processes except those used for the production of hydrochloric acid. This material comprised less that one percent of the total mass of the products, and it was expected from the composition of the materials that the acid would be neutralized in use, thus posing no significant environmental threat.

 

All inputs and outputs were accounted for as long as they comprised at least:

 

  1. One percent of the mass
  2. One percent of the energy, or
  3. One percent of the expected toxicity scores

 

Primary data was not available for the asphalt production, but was gathered from published sources (EPA, American Petroleum Institute). Information on the production of the GSB 88 and the tack coat was obtained from the manufacturer, as was information on the application of the GSB 88, the tack coat and the thin layer of asphalt cement. The flow charts below identify the systems under study.

Information about the emissions and resource use associated with transportation and from the use of electricity was derived from the LCAdvantage database (Battelle, 1998). Electricity was assumed to be from the average U.S. Grid.

 

Figure 1

EPAasphaltemulsioncoating

 

Figure 2

EPAthinasphaltcement

 

 

Category Indicators and Models

Global Indicators

The global warming indicator was based on the 100-year horizon for radiative forcing (IPCC, 1996) and expressed in units of CO2 equivalents. Stratospheric ozone depletion was based on the Montreal protocols, evaluated at infinite time horizon in units of CFC-11 equivalents (Hauschild and Wenzel, 1998).

Regional Indicators

The Eutrophication indicator was based on the Redfield Ratio, (Redfield, 1942), which states that the ratio of carbon to nitrogen to phosphorus in aquatic biomass is 106:16:1, on an atom basis. The indicator was expressed in phosphate equivalents.

The acidification indicator was based on the stoichiometric conversion of acid forming gases and acids to hydrogen ion equivalents, and was expressed in units of SO2 equivalents. (Hauschild and Wenzel, 1998).

The photochemical smog indicator was based on the maximum incremental reactivity of volatile organic compounds, as calculated by Carter (1998). This approach gives worst-case estimates of the potential ozone produced, and is expressed in ozone mass equivalents.

Local Indicators

The Human Health indicator was derived using the University of California Berkeley/Environmental Defense Fund Scorecard. This human toxicity model produces two scores: one based on carcinogenic risk (in benzene equivalents) and one based on non-carcinogenic risks (in toluene equivalents).

The Ecological Health Indicator is based on a model developed by the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) for the U.S. EPA. (EPA, 1995). It is a scoring model based on the toxicity, and persistence of toxic substances. The indicator is expressed as a unitless number, with higher numbers indicating higher risk than lower numbers.

Resource Depletion

The Resources indicator was based on the model presented by Soil and Water and by Scientific Certifications Systems (ISO TC207 SC3, N66). This model integrates use, recycling, and resource stocks and flows. For this study, resources were divided into fossil fuel (per British Petroleum, 1998) and other mineral resources (per USGS, 1998). Analysis is based on the 50 year time horizon.

In addition to these two sub-indicators, land use, solid waste generation and water use were reported as further indicators of resource depletion.

 

Results

The summary inventory for the two products is shown below. Inventory data was collected over a three month time frame. The data indicate that on a mass basis alone, the GSB 88® performs better than the asphalt cement.

 

Table 2 Summary Inventory

System Description

Raw Materials
Asphalt Cement
Thin Layer (2applic)
lb/lane mile/20yr
Asphalt Emulsion
GSB-88® (5 applic)
lb/lane mile/20yr
Asphalt 122,621 47,790
Aggregate 2,181,960 0
Diesel (application) 3,063 15
Diesel to prep hotmix 884 0
Sand 0 17,600
Gilsonite 0 21,500
HCI 32 24
Water 4,779 173,317
NP-40 (Detergent) 0 285
Surfactant 156 29
Light Cycle Oil 0 585
Land Use (road, m2) 5888 5888
Land Use (mfg, m2) <10 2

 

 

The figure below summarizes the results for the impact assessment portion of the study. All indicator results are shown with one significant figure only.

 

Table 3 Summary Impact Asessment

  LCIA Totals
Indicator GSB-88® Asphalt Cement
Global Warming (kg CO2 equiv.) 20,000 40,000
Ozone Depletion (kg CFC-11 equiv.) 0 0
Acidification (kg SO2 equiv.) 100 300
Eutrophication (kg PO4 equiv.) 0.007 0.02
Photochemical Smog (kg O3 equiv.) 40 80
Human Toxicity    
Cancer (kg benzene equiv.) 0.08 0.2
NonCancer (kg toluene equiv.) 2 5
Ecotoxicity (dimensionless) 1000 2000
Resource Depletion    
Fossil (tons oil equivalent) 40,000 90,000
Mineral (equiv tons) 0 0
Precious metals (equiv tons) 0 0
Other Indicators:    
Land Use (ha) 0.6 0.6
Water Use (m3) 80 2
Solid Waste (ton) 30 800

 

As can be seen, the GSB 88® performed as well as or better than the asphalt cement in all categories except water usage. All the water usage in these two products derives from the water contained in the GSB 88® itself. No wastewater is generated. The land use indicates the area of one lane mile of road; land use during manufacture was less than one percent of the land use during the use phase of these products. Based on these considerations, the GSB 88® can be considered to be environmentally preferable to the asphalt cement for this application.

Data from the impact assessment phase of the study mirrored the data from the inventory phase of the study. This might not be the case where more sophisticated impact assessment models were used, see discussion below.

The data were also analyzed by life cycle stage. Such an analysis is useful for identifying the sources of environmental impacts and potential areas for improvement. The results are shown below. For this study, transportation was modeled based on information gathered from primary sources, and the application was assumed to occur in northern Florida, where currently the U.S. Department of Defense is using the GSB 88®. As it happens, this scenario represents a worst-case transportation impact for the emulsion. The results for several of the indicators appear to be due to the impacts of transportation. From the point of view of the purchaser, this indicates that efforts to reduce transport distance or to choose environmentally preferable transport methods (e.g. barge transport over truck) can ameliorate the impacts of the product.

 

 

Table 4 Impact Assessment Percentage by Life Cycle Stage: GSB-88®

  Emulsion - by LC Stage
Indicator Raw Materials Manufacturing Transport Use Disposal
GWP 12 34 54 0 0
ODP 0 0 0 0 0
Acidification 15 17 69 0 0
Eutrophication 0 91 9 0 0
Photochemical Smog 20 7 73 0 0
Human Health          
Cancer 13 78 10 0 0
NonCancer 10 81 9 0 0
Eco Health 21 14 63 2 0
Resource Depletion          
Fossil 85 6 9 0 0
Mineral 0 0 0 0 0
Precious 0 0 0 0 0
Other Indicators:          
Land Use 0 0 0 100 0
Water Use 0 28 0 72 0
Solid Waste 0 0 0 0 100

 

 

Table 5 Impact Assessment Percentage by Life Cycle Stage: Asphalt Cement

  Cement - by LC Stage
Indicator Raw Materials Manufacturing Transport Use Disposal
GWP 9 76 14 1 0
ODP 0 0 0 0 0
Acidification 13 66 19 2 0
Eutrophication 0 98 2 0 0
Photochemical Smog 20 20 59 0 0
Human Health          
Cancer 12 85 3 0 0
NonCancer 9 88 2 0 0
Eco Health 25 47 22 8 0
Resource Depletion          
Fossil 82 16 2 0 0
Mineral 0 0 0 0 0
Precious 0 0 0 0 0
Other Indicators:          
Land Use 0 0 0 100 0
Water Use 0 100 0 0 0
Solid Waste 0 0 0 0 100

 

Interpretation and Quality Assessment

The validity of this assessment depends on the quality of the data collected and on the appropriateness of the analysis. As is the case for most LCA's the data were a combination of primary and secondary data sources, as shown below

 

Table 6 Data Sources and Types

Data Type Source
Asphalt Industry Average Industry Association
Aggregate Primary Manufacturer
Diesel (application) Primary; Surrogate Applier
Diesel to prep asphalt Industry Average Published Data
Sand Primary Manufacturer
Gilsonite Primary Manufacturer
HCI Primary Manufacturer
Water Primary Manufacturer
NP-40 (Detergent) Primary Manufacturer
Surfactant Industry Average Published Data
Light Cycle Oil Primary Manufacturer
Land Use Calculated This Study
Land Use Mixed Manufacturer, Engr. Estimate

 

Since the majority of the data collection consisted of primary data from the manufacturers, it is likely that this source of data is as good as possible. However, one can make a legitimate argument that the impact assessment phase of the study did not conform to the requirements for environmental relevance laid out in ISO 14042.

Specifically, neither the regional nor the local impact indicators took into account the regional and local environmental conditions. Instead, they relied on analyses focused early in the environmental mechanism. For example, acidification was evaluated as acid equivalents, without regard for the sensitivity of the receiving environments. In this case, the GSB 88 was manufactured in Utah, where acid precipitation is not currently a problem. With one exception, its components were also manufactured where acid precipitation does not currently pose a significant environmental threat, as shown in the map below (blue dots show manufacturing locations).

 

Figure 3

EPAFigure3

 

 

This site-specific information could have been incorporated into the model for the acidification indicator. Similarly, information about the environmental status of the local environments is available for impact categories such as photochemical smog, eutrophication and human and ecological health.

However, performing this type of assessment is limited by the quality of the inventory and environmental data available. Current inventory data bases do not identify the locations associated with particular emissions and resource uses. This limits site-specific impact assessment to data gathered from primary sources.

Although the situation is changing, the information about the environmental state of particular locations is generally patchy, especially when the locations are in less developed parts of the globe. Today, manufacturing is a global business, where components of a product may be manufactured in a dozen different countries, and used and disposed of in dozens more. In order to calculate an indicator that is equivalent for all its sub-indicators it is essential that comparable environmental data exist at all locations where the articles are manufactured used and disposed. For the moment, such an assessment is limited to operations performed in developed nations.

The FRED guidance is valuable for helping purchasing agents make choices between different products, because it identifies a comprehensive and consistent list of impact categories that can be used for all purchases. FRED also leaves room for the development of more environmentally relevant indicators for these impact categories. Following this guidance, even small companies can collect and perform LCA's at a low cost and without excessive time commitment. This LCA study was performed in only four months.

Conclusions

While there is still an opportunity to improve the impact assessment phase of LCA's in general and those used for purchasing decisions in particular, this pilot project demonstrated that LCA's are feasible for environmentally preferable purchasing, even when the company is small and time and money are short.

The FRED choice of environmental impact categories helps manage the number and types of data that need to be collected, thus streamlining the LCA process for procurement.

Partly because there was an overall superior environmental performance by GSB 88, the U.S. Department of Defense currently plans to purchase significant amounts of the product. Should the purchase be completed, this would further support the use of the LCA approach to Environmentally Preferable Purchasing.

There are other aspects of products that influence the purchase decision, including cost and convenience. As it happens, the GSB 88 product outperforms asphalt cement in those two areas as well. Its overall lifecycle cost is superior (Kindler, 1997) and application methods are less complicated. For other products, this is not so, and in many cases, cost vastly outweighs environmental performance as a decision parameter. The FRED methodology's planned next step is to integrate costing techniques with the environmental assessment.

Acknowledgements

I wish to express my gratitude for the assistance provided by Jose Garcia of the Office of Infrastructure, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., for his extensive help in providing data on asphalt roadways and their maintenance. I also wish to thank the staff or Asphalt Systems, Inc., for their hard work in providing information for this study.

References

Carter, William P.L. (1998). Updated Maximum Incremental Reactivity Scale. Prelimianry Report to California Air Resources Board Contract No. 95-308.

Executive Order 12873, (1993)“Federal Acquisition, Recycling, and Waste Prevention.”

Executive Order 13101, "Greening the Government through Waste Prevention, Recycling and Federal Acquisition."

Hauschild, M and H.Wenzel (1998). Environmental Assessment of Products, Vol 2. Chapman and Hall, London

Kindler, Joseph A. (1997) Port of Portland GSB as a Preventative Maintenance Tool. KMS & Associates.

Kommonen, F. (1997). LCSEA Manual for the Kyoto meeting April 1997, Soil and Water Ltd., Helsinki. ISO TC207 SC3, N66.

National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NRSP-3)/National Trends Network. (1997). NADP/NTN Coordination Office, Illinois State Water Survey, Champlaign, IL 61820

Redfield, A. C. (1942) The processes determining the concentration of oxygen, phosphate, and other organic derivatives within the depths of the Atlantic Ocean. Pap. Phys. Ocean. Meteor. 9, 22pp.

Research Triangle Institute, (RTI), (1993). A Multimedia Waste Reduction Management System for the State of North Carolina, Final Report. Prepared for the North Carolina Department of Health, Environment, and Natural Resources, Pollution Prevention Program. RTI Center for Environmental Analysis, April.

U.S. EPA (1999)."Final Guidance on Environmentally Preferable Purchasing for Executive Agencies," 64 FR 45809 20 August 1999

GSB-88® Economic Benefits

ASI Economic Benefits 

Keep Customers 

  • Less downtime
  • ROI from the use of GSB-88® can exceed 250%
  • Increase lifespan of roads, runways, and parkinglots
  • Create a smoother traffic ride
  • Maintain the black beauty of asphalt

Save Money

  • Decrease need to patch potholes and seal cracks
  • Reduce cracking and raveling
  • Meet "maintenance miles treated" goals
  • Avoid future pavement-failure crises

Protect the Environment

  • No coal tar
  • Low VOC fumes
  • Nontoxic and noncarcinogenic
  • EarthSure & GreenCircle Certified

 

Project cost estimator

 

1) New Road
Are you going to build a new road; if yes how much and what years?
New Road Cost in current day $
New Road Years
2) Overlay
Are you going to do an overlay; if yes how much and what years?
Overlay amount in current day $
Overlay Years
3) Annual Road Maintenance
What are your annual road maintenance costs?
Annual road maintenance
4) Inflation Rate
Inflation rate used was 2.98% based off a 10 year average (1998-2008).
Inflation rate
5) Discount Rate
Asssumed a 20 Year U.S. Treasury Bond Yield Forecast for August 2009 (4.4%).
Discount rate

 

 

 

Asphalt Systems, Inc.
Asphalt Services Cost Savings - Inflation Adjusted
Preventative Maintenance - GSB-88 Sealant
    Your Current
Scenario
GSB-88
Scenario
Industry Standards
Year     Overlay - Year 18 Standard 1
Overlay - Year 9
New Road - Year 18
Standard 2
Overlay - Year 9
Overlay - Year 18
1          
2          
3          
4          
5          
6          
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18          
Total Costs Adjusted for Inflation        
Total Costs in Todays Dollars        
 
GSB-88 Compaired to Your Current Scenario
Cost Savings in Todays Dollars    
Total Cost Savings Over Next 18 Years    
GSB - 88 Compaired to Indusry Standard 1
Cost Savings in Todays Dollars    
Total Cost Savings Over Next 18 Years    
GSB - 88 Compaired to Indusry Standard 2
Cost Savings in Todays Dollars    
Total Cost Savings Over Next 18 Years    
 

GSB-88® EPD Environmental Product Declaration & Green Circle Certification

Environmental Product Declaration For GSB-88®, Asphalt Systems, Inc

Product Information

 GSB-88® is an emulsified, gilsonite-modified pavement sealer and rejuvenator. The product rebinds the surface aggregate while sealing and rejuvenating the surface binder, providing a cosmetically enhancing finish. It has been used extensively in both early stage pavement preservation, as well as reactive late stage applications for badly raveled and deteriorated roads, parking areas, and airfield runways and taxiways. It extends the life of asphalt pavements by an average of five years. It is applied with standard asphalt emulsion application equipment, generally asphalt distributors. In some cases it may be advisable to broadcast a very light application of sand over the still wet GSB-88®.

The analysis shown here was performed in accordance with the Earthsure Environmental Product Declaration Program, using the product category rule for pavement preservation products. The analysis is based on a life cycle assessment of GSB-88®, using data collected from November 2009 to November 2010. Environmental Product Declarations from other sources using different Product Category Rules may not be comparable to this one.

 Environmental Product Declaration

EnvironmentalProductDeclaration2

EnvironmentalProductDeclaration3

Disclaimers

The analyses presented here were performed with all due care, but the user should realize that they represent the average results measured under standardized conditions and the actual environmental performance will vary depending on the particular application, the climate, the traffic type and intensity and other factors beyond the control of Asphalt Systems, Inc. The results shown here pertain only to the referenced product category rule. They should not be compared directly to results using a different product category rule.

 

GreenCircle Certification Explained

GreenCircle-MarkGSB-88® has just been awarded the first GreenCircle Certificate for asphalt emulsion in the world. When compared to a standard asphalt road without GSB-88® and a road with GSB-88® the road with GSB-88® will REDUCE Global Warming 49%, REDUCE Acidification 49%, REDUCE Eutophication 49%, REDUCE Ecotoxicity 46%, and REDUCE Smog 49%.

Please see below for definitions on the various impact categories listed on the GreenCircle certificate. If you have any questions or need clarification about these, please contact your ASI salesman or the main office.

 

Global Warming;

The "Global Warming" potential (GWP) associated with the manufacture of a product is also known as its "carbon footprint", and is measured in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents (kg CO2e). Carbon dioxide and other gasses are considered primary factors in climate change, and increased attention is now focused on controlling CO2 emissions worldwide as these gasses can trap heat close to the Earth. Environmental scientists have concluded that climate change is affecting plant and animal ecosystems, and could have many other negative consequences to human society.

Acidification;

Acidification is a more regional rather than global impact affecting fresh water and forests as well as human health when high concentrations of SO2 are attained. Acidification is a result of processes that contribute to increased acidity of water and soil systems. Acid rain is an example of acidification.

Eutrophication;

Eutrophication is the fertilization of surface waters by nutrients that were previously scarce. When a previously scarce or limiting nutrient is added to a water body, it leads to the overabundance of aquatic photosynthetic plant life. An example of this are algae blooms. This may lead to the water body becoming hypoxic (oxygen deficient), eventually causing the death of fish and other aquatic life, creating dead zones.

Ecotoxicity;

Many chemicals, when released into the environment, can cause damage to individual species and to the overall health of an ecosystem. Ecotoxicity measures the potential damage to the ecosystem that would result from releasing that chemical into the environment.

GreenCircleCertificate

Project Calculator

Project cost estimator

 

1) New Road
Are you going to build a new road; if yes how much and what years?
New Road Cost in current day $
New Road Years
2) Overlay
Are you going to do an overlay; if yes how much and what years?
Overlay amount in current day $
Overlay Years
3) Annual Road Maintenance
What are your annual road maintenance costs?
Annual road maintenance
4) Inflation Rate
Inflation rate used was 2.98% based off a 10 year average (1998-2008).
Inflation rate
5) Discount Rate
Asssumed a 20 Year U.S. Treasury Bond Yield Forecast for August 2009 (4.4%).
Discount rate

 

 

 

Asphalt Systems, Inc.
Asphalt Services Cost Savings - Inflation Adjusted
Preventative Maintenance - GSB-88 Sealant
    Your Current
Scenario
GSB-88
Scenario
Industry Standards
Year     Overlay - Year 18 Standard 1
Overlay - Year 9
New Road - Year 18
Standard 2
Overlay - Year 9
Overlay - Year 18
1          
2          
3          
4          
5          
6          
7          
8          
9          
10          
11          
12          
13          
14          
15          
16          
17          
18          
Total Costs Adjusted for Inflation        
Total Costs in Todays Dollars        
 
GSB-88 Compaired to Your Current Scenario
Cost Savings in Todays Dollars    
Total Cost Savings Over Next 18 Years    
GSB - 88 Compaired to Indusry Standard 1
Cost Savings in Todays Dollars    
Total Cost Savings Over Next 18 Years    
GSB - 88 Compaired to Indusry Standard 2
Cost Savings in Todays Dollars    
Total Cost Savings Over Next 18 Years    
 

Product Brochure
ASI Flyer-GSB88
Environmental gsb88-environmental-product-declaration